A search for the origin of the Mannerheim family

The aim of the present study was to obtain detailed knowledge of the origin of the Mannerheim family. In contrast to what had generally been reported in the literature, it has incontestably been shown that the progenitor of the family, the merchant Henrik Marhein, who settled in the city of Gävle in Sweden in the 1640’s, has not originated in the Netherlands, but in Germany. He was baptised in the city of Hamburg on December 28 1618, where his father, Henning Marhein, was also a merchant. The previous assumption that Henrik Marhein had been Dutch, was in fact solely based on a publication of the Finnish researcher Bruno Lesch in 1924. Lesch had found letters in Swedish archives written in Dutch, which were signed by Henrik Marhein. This, as well as the apparent intensive trade connections between Henrik Marhein and merchants in the city of Amsterdam, made Lesch to erroniously conclude that Henrik Marhein had migrated from the Netherlands to Sweden.


In biographies on Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, Marshal of Finland and sixth president of the Finnish republic, it is generally mentioned that the progenitor of the Mannerheim family, Henrik Marhein, has been a Dutchman. This is also the case in genealogies of the nobility in Sweden and Finland.1 However, details on the Dutch ancestry are lacking and this has prompted us to conduct a detailed study in various archives in The Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden and Germany.

During the 17th century, a large number of Dutch and German merchants immigrated to Sweden. Many of these immigrants made a successful career in industries and trade. Their impact on the economic growth in Sweden was significant. One of these entrepreneurs was Henrik Marhein, born in 1618. In the late 1640’s he settled in the Swedish town of Gävle. The family name Marhein did not occur in Sweden before his arrival. Around 1649 he got married with Margareta Gammal, who belonged to a distinguished family in Gävle. Her father, Olof Gammal, was a rich merchant and her mother, Helena Nielsdotter, was a relative of the lord mayors of the cities Gävle and Söderhamn. In 1651 Henrik Marhein obtained citizenship of Gävle. In the municipal records of Gävle it is mentioned that on March 9 1650 he has bought a town house. Around the same time he had become partly owner of two ironworks: Tolffors (in Gävle) and Forsbacka (about 20 km west of Gävle). In 1659 he moved to Stockholm, where he was, until his death in 1667, employed by the first Swedish bank (the Palmstruch bank).2

Henrik Marhein (left) with his wife Margareta Gammal (right) and children painted by Johan Aureller in 1659. Private collection. Photo Jörgen Stegard.

A son of Henrik Marhein, Augustin, born in December 1654, changed the family name into Mannerheim, after he was ennobled in 1693 by king Charles XI.3 Two of his sons and their descendents were allowed to use the title of baron. A grandson of Augustin Mannerheim was the father of Carl Erik Mannerheim, who moved to Finland and became the founder of the Finnish branch of the family. In 1824 Carl Erik Mannerheim was made a count. The title was hereditary transmitted via the eldest son. His son Count Carl Robert Mannerheim had seven children. The third child and second son, born on June 4 1867, was Carl Gustaf Emil, the future marshal and president. Consequently, Carl Gustaf Emil belongs to the sixth generation after Henrik Marhein.

What exactly has been written about Marhein’s background in the recent front-rank Mannerheim biographies?

Stig Jägerskiöld (1983) in ‘Mannerheim 1867-1951’: Mannerheimit olivat alun perin hollantilaisia, mutta olivat 1600-luvun puolivälissä asettuneet kauppiaiksi ja teollisuuden harjoittajiksi Ruotsiin (The Mannerheim’s were originally Dutch, but settled in the middle of the sixteenth century as merchants and industrialists in Sweden). 4

Veijo Meri (1988) in ‘C.G. Mannerheim’: Mannerheim-suku tuli todennäköisesti Saksan kautta Hollannista Ruotsiin. Kantaisä Henrik Marhein putkahtaa esille Gävlessä. Vuonna 1645 hän asettui sinne kauppiaaksi (The Mannerheim family came probably from the Netherlands via Germany to Sweden. The progenitor, Henrik Marhein, went to live in Gävle. In the year 1645 he settled there as a merchant). 5

John E.O. Screen (1993) in ‘Mannerheim, the years of preparation’: The founder of the family, Henrik Marhein, was Dutch, but he came to Sweden from Germany. 6

Laura Kolbe (1997) in ‘Loistava suku’, which is a chapter in the book ‘Mannerheim tuttu ja tuntematon’: Hollannista Saksan kautta Ruotsin Gävleen noin vuonna 1645 muuttaneen Henrik (eri yhteyksissä Hindrich, Hendrick, Henrich) Marheinin taustasta ei tiedetä paljoakaan (We do not know much about the background of Henrik {or Hindrich, Hendrick, Henrich} Marhein, who moved around 1645 from the Netherlands via Germany to Gävle in Sweden). 7

Paavo Suoninen (2005) in ‘Mannerheim suurin suomalainen’: Mannerheim-suvun juuret versovat historian hämärästä, otaksuttavasti Hollannista Saksan kautta Ruotsiin. Ensimmäinen kirjallinen merkintä on vuodelta 1645, jolloin Henrik Marhein nimisen kauppamiehen mainitaan toimineen G­ästriklandin maakunnassa Gävlessä Pohjanlahden länsirannalla (The roots of the Mannerheim family have sprouted in the twilight of history, supposedly from the Netherlands via Germany to Sweden. The first written text referring to him is from 1645, when the name Henrik Marhein was mentioned in connection with a merchant in Gävle in Gästrikland, along the west coast of the Gulf of Bothnia).8

Martti Turtola and Paavo Friman, in ’Mannerheim-kirja’, Gummerus 2005: ”Suvun kantaisä Henrik Marhein muutti Hollannista Saksan kautta Gävleen, Ruotsiin vuoden 1645 tienoilla.” (The proginator of the family moved from The Netherlands via Germany to Gävle in Sweden, around 1645).9

None of these authors mentioned their source, in spite of the fact that they have probably not themselves conducted studies in Swedish archives.

The Mannerheim biographer John Screen informed us that the supposed Dutch origin of Henrik Marhein is, as far as he knew, solely based on the publication of the Finnish researcher Bruno Lesch in 1924. Lesch had found three letters in Swedish archives written in Dutch, and signed by Henrik Marhein.

Lesch (1924) made the following remark: “För nederländsk härkomst finnas då en del avgörande indicier, främst Marheins holländska språkkunskap, vilken framträder i hans korrespondens met ett par stockholmsköpman, inflyttade från Holland. … I Svea Hovrätts arkiv finnas två holländska brev från Marhein till handlanden Werhusen, med vilken han processade; I Momma-Reenstierna saml. å Sv. Riksark. ingår ett brev på holländska från Marhein till hans principal Jakob Momma. I båda fallen är användandet av skrivare uteslutet”. (“For a Dutch origin there are some significant indications, in the first place Marhein’s ability to write in Dutch, which becomes evident from his correspondence with merchants in Stockholm who had migrated from the Netherlands. In the Svea Hovrätts archives there are two letters from Marhein to the merchant Werhusen, with whom he was at law; in the Momma-Reenstierna saml. å Sv. Riksark., is a letter in Dutch from Marhein to his boss Jakob Momma. In both cases is the use of a clerk out of the question”).10

Lesch (1924) also stated: “I samma riktning peka(r) vidare hans synnerligen livliga affärsförbindelser med Amsterdam – de enda utländska han veterligen haft” and  “Att namnet icke klingade främmande för holländska öron synes slutligen framgå av den unika formen van Marheyn, som en gång förekommer i en fullmakt, utfärdad av hans leverantör i Amsterdam”. (His intensive business relations with Amsterdam further point to the same direction” and “that the name does not sound unfamiliar to a Dutch ear shows the use of the unique form ’van Marheyn’, as once is the case in a proxy given by his supplier in Amsterdam”.11

In this context it should be noted that Lesch (1924), in spite of his conclusion that Marhein has been Dutch, stated that the name Marhein could have been come into existence both in the Netherlands and Germany. He based this on, the, at that time, available literature on German and Dutch family names. He ruled out the possibility that the name could have arisen in Sweden.12

Interestingly, Börje Thilman (1977), in a publication in the journal Genos, emphasised that the name Marhein does not point to a Dutch ancestry. He suggests that the name is of North German origin and he explains this by referring to the Deutsches Namenlexicon of Hans Bahlow (1967). The name ‘Mar’ might have been derived from ‘Meier’, in the dialect of Ostfalen (the region in Northern Germany situated between the rivers Weser and Elbe, north of the city of Erfurt). The word ‘Meier’ means tenant or superintendent. The second part of the name ‘hein’ could have been derived from the Christian name ‘Heinrich’.13

Apparently the publication of Thilman (1977) has not raised much attention by the Mannerheim biographers, although for some unknown reason Meri (1988), Screen (1993), Kolbe (1997), Suoninen (2005) and Turtola and Friman (2005), assert that Marhein has migrated to Sweden from the Netherlands via Germany.

Search in archives in the Netherlands

Although a Dutch ancestry of the Mannerheim family had been emphasized in the literature, no details were available. Consequently, our research has in a first instance been focused on The Netherlands.

It soon became apparent, however, that the name Marhein could not be found in archives in the Netherlands and consequently the idea took form that the name had somehow been changed in Sweden. An example for such a Swedish ‘adaptation’ was the name of a Dutchman who later became partly owner of the ironworks in and near Gävle, Godefridus de Leeuw. In old Swedish documents this name was written as ‘de Leu’. Therefore it was hypothesised that Marhein’s name had been changed in a similar way, i.e. adapted to Swedish writing, but had kept the original Dutch pronunciation.

Haggrén (2001) analysed the iron industries in the Swedish province of Gästrikland in the 17th century. The publication included a table with names of forgemen and forges in the Swedish region of Gästrikland in 1655 based on material from the local mining district. With regard to the iron factories Tolffors and Forsbacka, the owners were listed as subsequently Henric Marin and Jochim Strokerk, and Henrich Marhein and Jochim Strokirk.14 It was evident that Henric Marin or Henrich Marhein was identical with Henrik Marhein, the progenitor of the Mannerheim family. Jochim Strokerk or Strokirk could be traced back to the city of Lübeck and was of German origin.

The family name written as ‘Marin’ prompted us to hypothesise that the name originally had been French (the French word ‘marin’ means ‘sailor’ and the family name ‘Marin’ is relatively common in France). In the seventeenth century many forgemen, who had gained experience in the iron industry in Wallonia (in the present Belgium), were employed in Sweden. Moreover, many emigrants from Wallonia settled down in the Netherlands at the end of the sixteenth century, as a result of the oppression of Protestantism in the Spanish Netherlands. In this respect it was not unimaginable that the French pronunciation of ‘Marin’ had resulted in a Swedish name ‘Marhein’.

Later it appeared to us that we had not been the first ones to get this idea. In 1968 Erik Appelgren included the name ‘Marin’ in his book on Walloon names in Sweden ‘Vallonernas namn’. In connection with the name ‘Marin’ he wrote: 1651 Forsbacka, Gästrikland: Hindric Marin anlade detta år en hammare vid detta bruk. Marin är ett franskt dopnamn på flera helgon. Av mar = berömed. 1966 finns Marin och Marén, som även kan komma härav. Vid Ankarsrum har funnits valloner med det försvenskade namnet Mareng (1651 Forsbacka, Gästrikland: “Hindric Marin constructed in this year a forge for this factory. Marin is a French baptismal name for various saints. Av mar = famous. In 1966 families with the names Marin and Marén occurred (in Sweden), and these may have been descendants. In Ankarsrum Walloons have lived with the name Mareng,which is an adaptation to the Swedish pronunciation).15

In a book on family names in Wallonia by Jules Herbillon and Jean Germain (1996) entitled ‘Dictionnaire des noms de famille en Belgique romane’, it has been noted with regard to the name ‘Marin’:“1651 Hindric Marin émigré en Suède (“1651 Hindric Marin emigrated to Sweden”).16 As it became evident that during the seventeenth century a family has lived in Amsterdam with the name Marin (which was changed into Marijn), it became tempting to connect this family with Henrik Marhein in Gävle.

Theoretically, Henrik Marhein would fit very well in this family Marin/Marijn in Amsterdam, as several members of this family also were merchants. The family originally came from Nivelles in the present Belgium. Unfortunately, it was not possible to find a Henrik Marin or Marijn in the archives in Amsterdam, who could correspond with Henrik Marhein in Sweden. This was on itself not surprising, as Henrik Marhein has not married in Amsterdam and baptism records in the Walloon church in Amsterdam only started in 1618. In a note on a painting from 1659 on the Marhein family in Sweden by the painter Johan Aureller, it is mentioned that Henrik Marhein has been born in 1618 (Lesch 1924). However, it was questionable whether this writing was reliable, as it seems that the painting has been radically restored several times.17

Apart from the archives in Amsterdam, also archives were consulted in other cities in the Netherlands, such as Dordrecht, Delft, Rotterdam, Leiden en Haarlem. However, this did not lead to any positive results as far as a Henrik Marin or Marijn was concerned. Subsequently the search in The Netherlands came to a standstill.

In 2011, when analysing the coat-of-arms which Henrik Marhein has used in his seals, Henrik Degerman made a similar conclusion based on information he got from the Netherlands.18

Search in the archives of Menen in Belgium

As in the debentures, which Henrik Marhein has signed, the name has several times been written as Marheijn, It appeard, according to data which were available at the internet, that in Menen (Menin) in Belgium a Jan Mareyn got married in 1603 and a Marie Marheijn had been a witness at the christening of a child on January 4 1603. Moreover, in the City of Leuven a Jacobus Marheyn got married in 1706.19

As in Menen the name had occurred during the same period when Henrik Marhein turned up in Sweden, it was decided to pay a brief visit to the archives of this relatively small place, near the Belgian/French border, about 20 km south of the city of Kortrijk. In addition, in Menen a Jacoba Mareyn (born in 1638), an Elisabeth Mareyn (born in 1648) and a Michael Marhein (born in 1653) was found. The name was not very common and seemed to have occurred as clerical errors of writing the name Marhem or Marrhem, which is common in the border region of Belgium and France.

The keeper of the records in the Menen archives, who is specialised in seventeenth century handwritings from the southern Netherlands, has taken a detailed look at the handwriting of the letter in Dutch from Henrik Marhein to Jakob Momma. This is one of the letters which prompted Lesch (1924) to conclude that Henrik Marhein had been a Dutchman. The keeper of the archives in Menen concluded that it was not from a ‘seventeen century inhabitant’ of the southern Netherlands.20

Search  in the national archives (Riksarkivet) in Stockholm

In Sweden it was possible to copy various documents which were connected with the activities of Henrik Marhein. These also included the letters which had been written in Dutch, which Lesch in 1924 had made to conclude that Marhein originally came from The Netherlands.

Moreover, there are various debentures, signed by Henrik Marhein, which are connected with money that he had to pay to merchants in Amsterdam, as well as letters which Marhein had written in Swedish.

In one document there is a part of a sort of cash-book of Henrik Marhein, written in 1656, and in which under ‘credits’ the name of Johan Gammal in Hamburg was listed for an amount of 809.28 dalers. Johan Gammal was Henrik Marhein’s brother-in-law and this showed that Marhein was trading with merchants in Hamburg.21

Some valuable notes concerning the Marhein/Mannerheim family are present in the so called Palmskiölds collection in the Library of the University of Uppsala. One of these is a manuscript in which Henrik Marhein around 1659, has written down information concerning the birth and baptism of his children: Johan Henning (1650), Augustin (1654), Elisabet (1656), Elisabet (1658),  Maria Catharina (?), Dorothea Margareta (?) and Juliana Magdalena (1667).22

A study on the handwriting of Henrik Marhein at the University of Leiden

A detailed study at the University of Leiden by a specialist in both Dutch and German handwritings from the seventeenth century, Hans Jacobs, showed that Henrik Marhein had not written the Dutch letters himself. His signature, however, appeared to be authentic, as well as a sentence in German which had been added to one of the letters. This conclusion was based on the fact that at the time Germans and Dutch wrote the letters ‘e’ and ‘f’ in a slightly different way. Consequently, Hans Jacobs concluded that Henrik Marhein most probably had been a German.23

A search in the national archives (Staatsarchiv) in Hamburg

Taking into consideration that Henrik Marhein could have been a German, the idea took form to contact the archives of the main seaports in northern Germany. As the brother-in-law of Henrik Marhein, Johan Gammal, had been working in Hamburg, we first contacted by e-mail the national archives in this city. And this was a big hit. A merchant Henning Marhein had lived with his family in Hamburg in the seventeenth century and, as the family name was relatively rare in Germany, it seemed that we were on the right track. Moreover, the name of the eldest son of Henrik Marhein, Johan Henning (born in Gävle in 1650), pointed to a relationship with Henning Marhein in Hamburg.

Subsequently, we have visited the national archives in Hamburg, where it appeared that the Henrik Marhein we were looking for, had been babtised as Henrich Marhein in the St. Jakobi church in Hamburg on December 28 1618. Henning Marhein was his father and the family

lived from 1607 until 1653 in the Steinstrasse on the corner of Spersort, in the centre of Hamburg. It also appeared that Hinrich (Henrik) Marhein had various brothers and a sister. One of his brothers was called Augustin, which clarifies why he named his second son in Sweden Augustin.24

The merchant Henning Marhein, the father of Henrich Marhein, has become a citizen of the city of Hamburg on July 8 1607. This implies that he has not been born in Hamburg. The Christian name of his wife is Elisabeth.

After the death of Henning Marhein, Henrich Marhein was on September 4 1646 mentioned as one of the owners of the house of the family, together with his mother Elisabeth, his brothers David and Henning, and his sister Elisabeth.  Consequently, it may be concluded that Henrich Marhein was then still living in Hamburg. On September 9 1653 it is has been put down in black and white in the ‘Erbebuch’ that he was living elsewhere.25 As his marriage in Gävle with Margareta Gammal has probably been in 1649, and around the same period he also became partly owner of the ironworks Tolffors and Forsbacka, it is likely that he has permanently settled in Sweden between 1646 and 1649.


It can be concluded that the assumption of Lesch (1924), with respect to Henrik Marhein’s Dutch origin, has been incorrect. Lesch’s theory was mainly based on a supposed ability of Marhein to write in Dutch. However, during this study it became evident that the handwriting in the Dutch letters, which Marhein had signed, does not correspond with what we, after looking in detail at various scripts, consider his authentic handwriting. Moreover, in one of Marhein’s letters which were written in Dutch, a subscript is written in German, and this also accounts for a subscript added to one of the debentures. It was concluded that Marhein himself has written these subscripts, and that also his signature under the scripts is authentic. Consequently, it can be assumed that somebody else, possibly a clerk, has written the Dutch texts. This clerk was probably a native Dutchman, as the texts are correctly written in seventeenth century Dutch language.

Lesch (1924) stated in connection with Marhein’s Dutch letters: “I båda fallen är användandet av skrivare uteslutet”, translated into English: “In both cases (i.e. a letter to Jakob Momma and two letters to Peter Werhusen) the writing by a clerk can be excluded”. It is conceivable that Lesch (1924) drew this wrong conclusion, as it is of course not very obvious that a German, living in Sweden, would send letters in Dutch.26

For Lesch (1924) the information, written in the debentures in connection with debts to merchants in Amsterdam, is additional proof of Marhein’s close connections with the Netherlands. In itself this is correct. However, in contrast to the three Dutch letters, Lesch did not bring the possibility into discussion that Marhein could also have written the Dutch debentures himself. Why not? Perhaps he has assumed that, in contrast to the letters, the debentures were official documents, commonly drafted by a mediator.

We are of the opinion that the debentures in Dutch, signed by Marhein, as well as the one in German, have, in line with the Dutch letters, not been written by Marhein himself. The handwriting does not suggest this, and in the Dutch debenture the name is written as Marheijn, i.e. in a typical Dutch way. In all documents, which we have seen, Marhein has written his name with ‘ei’ and never with ‘eij’ ot ‘ey’. The assumption that the name had originated in the southern Netherlands, where a few Marheijn’s or Marheyn’s have lived in the seventeenth century, could also be refuted. The Belgian specialist in the archives in Menen, has ascertained that the letter sent by Marhein to Momma, in all probability had not been written by a native of the southern Netherlands. Moreover, as Marhein himself has never written his family name in any other way, i.e. never used another spelling, it could also be concluded that the name has not been a modification of ‘Marin’ or ‘Marijn’. The fact that in the judicial records from the Mining District of Uppland and Gävleborg län, Henrick Marhein has occasionally been written down as Henrick Marin27, is not astonishing, as several French speaking native Walloons worked as clerks in the local ironworks – and perhaps in the mining administration too.

It is striking that Thilman (1987), who suggested a German origin of Henrik Marhein, has been so close to the truth. He merely based this on the name Marhein, which he believed to have originated in Ostphalen. He did not discuss the Dutch letters.

An important finding in the Swedish archives for drawing our attention to Hamburg has been the document in which was written “Johan Gammal i Hamborg betalt”. Johan Gammal was Henrik Marhein’s brother-in-law and apparently he has been living for a certain period in Hamburg.

It may be assumed that Henrik Marhein has himself written the Swedish text dealing with his children. Although this text seems to have been copied from older texts, the handwriting is very similar to the German texts added to the Dutch scripts. It is also noticeable that the names of the three younger children have later been added to the manuscript.

The documents give ample proof that various Dutch people where active in Sweden during this period. Therefore it is not surprising that Marhein could make use of Dutch clerks to write his letters to Dutch business people.

A final question which can be raised is why Henrik Marhein has taken the effort to hire a clerk to write letters in Dutch to his Dutch business relations in Sweden. Why he has not written these letters in Swedish or German? A reason could be that, although he and the addressees lived already for several years in Sweden, they had not sufficiently command of this language. On the other hand, this is contradicted by several scripts, which Marhein has written in Swedish. Writing in German may have caused problems for his Dutch business partners.

We may assume that Marhein was able to read the Dutch text in his letters, which he probably had dictated in German or Swedish.

Arnold Pieterse is a senior ecologist and previous board member of the The Netherlands-Finland Society. After his retirement he has conducted various studies on the history of Finland and Finnish-Dutch relationships.

Georg Haggrén is adjunct professor of historical archeology at the Department of Philosophy, History and Art Studies at the University of Helsinki. He has made his doctoral thesis about 17th century iron industries in Sweden.

Peter Starmans is a retired lecturer in Dutch language and Culture at the University of Helsinki. He is a previous chairman of the Dutch Society in Finland.


The authors are grateful to Finlands Adelsförbund and Suomen Marsalkka Mannerheimin Perinnesäätiö for sponsoring this study.

Archival sources

National Archives in Hamburg

St Jacobi parish archives

Swedish National Archives (Stockholm, Sweden)

Bergskollegiums arkiv

Svea Hovrätts arkiv

Uppsala University Library (Uppsala, Sweden)

Palmskiölds samling

Previous report

This article is based on a research report:Arnold Pieterse, Georg Haggrén and Peter Starmans: A search for the origin of the Mannerheim family (2007). Manuscript in the National archives of Finland (Helsinki).


Appelgren, Erik (1968). Vallonernas namn. Stockholm. 300p.

Bahlow, Hans (1967). Deutsches Namenlexicon. Keyser, München. 588 pp.

Carpelan, Tor (1958): Ättartavlor för de på Finlands riddarhus inskrivna ätterna II, Helsingfors.

Degerman, Henrik (2011). Mannerheim-sukujen heraldinen historia. Henkilö- ja sukuvaakunat Suomessa. Toim. Antti Matikkala & Wilhelm Brummer. SKS, Helsinki 2011. p, 160-167.

Elgenstierna, Gustaf (1930): Den itroducerade svenska adelns ättartavlor V. Stockholm.

Haggrén, Georg (2001). Hammarsmeder, masugnsfolk och kolare. Tidigindustriella yrkesarbetare vid provinsbruk i 1600-talets Sverige. Jernkontorets Berghistoriska Skriftserie Nr 38 – STH publikationer nr 5. Stockholm – Helsingfors. 368 pp.

Herbillon, Jules and Germain, Jean (1996). Dictionnaire des noms de famille en Belgique romane et dans les régions limitrophes.Crédit ommunal, Brussels. 1186p.

Jägerskiöld, Stig (1983). Mannerheim 1867-1951. Kustannusosakeyhtiö Otava, Helsinki.

Kolbe, Laura  (1997). Loistava Suku. In: Mannerheim, Tuttu ja tuntematon. Oy Valitut Palat – Reader’s Digest Ab.

Lesch, Bruno (1924). Carl Erik Mannerheim. Ämbetsmannen och statsmannen I. Intill 1816. Helsinki.

Meri, Veijo (1988). C.G. Mannerheim. Söderström Osake yhtiö, Helsinki.

Norberg, Petrus (1959). Gästriklands hyttor och hamrar. Blad för bergshanteringens vänner 1958. p 193-475.

Screen, John E.O. (1993). Mannerheim, the years of preparation. C. Hurst & Company. 159 p.

Suoninen, Paavo (2005). Mannerheim suurin suomalainen. JoMe Partiosäätiö, Joensuu. 304 p.

Thilman, Börje (1977). Marhein – Maalais – Heikki? Genos 48,  p. 131.

Turtola, Martti and Friman, Paavo (2005). Mannerheim-kirja.Gummerus, Jyväskylä.


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  1. Carpelan 1958, 713; Elgenstierna 1930, 170. []
  2. Lesch 1924, 4-26. []
  3. Lesch 1924, 27, 34-35. []
  4. Jägerskiöld 1983, 11. []
  5. Meri 1988, 108. []
  6. Screen 1993, 18. []
  7. Kolbe 1997, 17. []
  8. Suoninen 2005, 8. []
  9. Turtola & Friman 2005, 21. []
  10. Lesch 1924, 6. []
  11. Lesch 1924, 6-7. []
  12. Lesch 1924, 5. []
  13. Thilman 1977, Genos 48, 131. []
  14. Haggrén 2001, 333; Norberg 1959, 323-324; Swedish National Archives: Bergskollegiums arkiv. Advokatfiskalens arkiv: Rättsprotokoll: Uppland o. Gävleborg 1655-1692 (E II e:1); Gruvting vid Tolffors 11.9.1655. []
  15. Appelgren 1968, 186-187. []
  16. Herbillon 1996. A source is not mentioned in the book, but Jean Germain (pers. comm. 2006) informed us that the source was the publication by Appelgren (1968). []
  17. Lesch 1924, 22-23. []
  18. Degerman 2011, 160. []
  19. Pers. obs. []
  20. Comm. Dominique Aps. []
  21. Swedish National Archives: Svea Hovrätt: Huvudarkiv: Liber Causarum (1658): E VI a 2 aa:117:3: N:o 13. Bokhållaren Hindrich Marheim emot Jochim Strokerck p. 38-39. []
  22. Uppsala University Library: Palmskiölds samling vol. 225, p. 183. []
  23. Personal comment by Hans Jacobs 2007. []
  24. National Archives in Hamburg: The parish register of the St. Jakobi church in Hamburg. []
  25. National Archives in Hamburg: Bestand 231-1 Hypothekenamt V 5 Band 3, Erbebuch St. Jakobi 1570- 1614, 137. []
  26. Lesch 1924, 6. []
  27. Swedish National Archives: Bergskollegiums arkiv. Advokatfiskalens arkiv: Rättsprotokoll: Uppland o. Gävleborg 1655-1692 (E II e:1); Gruvting vid Tolffors 11.9.1655. []


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